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Be mindful of where you rest scalpels and other sharp instruments; do not put them haphazardly on the dissection table, but rather place them back in clear sight.
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Animal Parasites and Messmates P. Van Beneden. Word Origin for scalpel C from Latin scalpellum, from scalper a knife, from scalpere to scrape.

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A small straight knife with a thin sharp blade used in surgery and dissection. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. This eventually leads to longer scarring and recovery periods. It is fundamental to establish that in academic formation scenarios of surgical importance, the following is not taught, nor is it quantified in force units, the amount of pressure required or the degree of pressure that should be applied to a scalpel blade, in order to obtain a therapeutic result, without it deforming in any detectable way.

It is equally important to mention that there is no exact or quantifiable parameter, thus it was decided to use rheology due to its investigative ability, what this science achieves is to study the effective link between exerted force on a material and the possible deformation that a material or tissue experiences.

The present study aimed to describe deformation of the cutting surfaces and cutting effort of the No. This procedure, was carried out with a texture analyzer possessing suitable forces to perform the cuts while maintaining a regulated cutting speed and constant angulation.

What Is a Scalpel Used For?

One of the major detected constraints, which are common on any study, was that not enough background information or references were found regarding description of the active part of a scalpel blade after being used.. The importance of this article, product of research, is that it makes a contribution that allows us to demonstrate and quantify the deformations or alterations that are produced on scalpel blades, which simultaneously decrease their cutting capacity when repeatedly used in surgical procedures within the oral cavity..

A comparative-descriptive study was performed.. As an experimentation model, commercially available ex vivo pig mandibles were used, no animal was harmed for this study.. As a sample, 20 No. Each group was made of five scalpel blades each.. Picture-taking was standardized by using a formwork, avoiding the movements of the scalpel blade. The scalpel blades were taken to the Shimadzu texture analyzer model EZ-S, serial number , Hz Figure 1 , this equipment reaches a maximum capacity of N of pressure for the performance of the tests.. Shimadzu EZ-S texture analyzer. It was used for development of rheological tests in the pig mandibles.

B Fragment of a pig mandible attached to the texture analyzer used for rheological tests.. In the texture analyzer, the mucoperiosteal penetrating cuts were performed in a degree angle in pig mandibles Figure 2. The pig mandibles were selected because of their similitude with the human oral tissue. Also, they offer the possibility of being fitted and cut for an easy access of the cutting tools attached to the texture analyzer. The penetrating incision was made at a constant speed of 10 mm per minute until reaching the bone..

Fragment of a pig mandible attached to the texture analyzer, with scalpel blade at a degree angle, initiating gingival tissue cutting.. Using the first group of the scalpel blades from both brands, only one cut was performed and had pictures taken afterwards. Then we proceeded with the second groups of the scalpel blades, and with a previous picture of the blades taken, a simulation of the cuts in the mandible was performed with the same standardization of cutting pressure and angle.

The photographs were taken after two incisions were performed with each blade. Then we proceeded with the group C, performing three cuts per blade and in the group D, four cuts per blade.. These blades were not replaced. Data collected from these fractured blades was used in the statistic report.. Photographic description was twofold. Physical deformation and cutting effort was evaluated in every No. Initially, scalpel blade area variability was assessed, measuring the cutting effort in Newton N. In general, both brands reported a median of Global variability of scalpel blade area before and after cuts..

Variability of global scalpel blade area before and after cuts.. The variability of the area of the scalpel blade was also determined in millimeters, according to number of cuts, a significant decrease was reported in the observed area after cuts were performed, as shown in table II. Variability of the area in mm according to the number of cuts performed..

Likewise, the blade variability was evaluated according to number of cuts performed within each blade group. In general, no statistically significant differences in cutting effort of one, two, three and four cuts were observed; maximum reported effort was Variability of the cutting effort N according to number of cuts..

This shows the high deformation frequency of scalpel blades after use Table IV. Nevertheless, in order to obtain better details of the generated deformation degree, scalpel blades areas were analyzed before and after performing the diverse cuts Figures 3 and Frequency of deformation from different used brands.. Continuity of the sharp edge in the active edge is noticeable, without any opacities or deformities..

Edge opacity is noticeable in the sharp edge; this can be interpreted as physical deformation of the blade.. The Bard Parker No.

The history of the scalpel: From flint to zirconium-coated steel | The Bulletin

The object of this study allowed us to describe and compare the sharp edge deformation of Bard Parker scalpel blades from two different brands, using an experimental model and performing one to four incisions in ex vivo pig gums.. Various studies carried out to date, focus their interest in studying the effect of different instruments in the scarring process of the mucosa after diverse surgical procedures without determining or describing the deformities elicited in the scalpel blade.

Authors such as Arshad et al compared the advantages and disadvantages of CO 2 laser and the scalpel blade in the scarring of wounds after an oral exposition and surgical procedures in soft tissue. They observed the scarring process of the wound and they compared it, both clinically andhistologically, 24 hours after surgery.

Other authors who have done studies where they evaluated other types of primary outcomes were Sinha and Gallagher; 10 they compared the performance of different instruments in the scarring process when a steel blade, ultrasonic blade, mono or bipolar electro-surgery instruments or CO 2 laser were used while performing oral surgery in an animal model, the samples were collected for a histopathological study, traction resistance was measured, moreover they evaluated aspects such as hemostasis, coagulation, tissue adherence, wound scarring, reepithelialization and inflammation degree, and they found that the ultrasonic blade was the best tool in controlling the hemostasis and further coagulation.

Greatest traction resistance was observed when using steel scalpel blade and ultrasonic blade. The authors concluded that the ER laser achieved more benefits in the scarring process than the rest of the instruments. Chanthasopeephan et al,5 studied cuts from nonuniform thickness liver tissue with three different cutting speeds 0. They found that the depth of the cut plays a very important role in the force that needs to be applied while cutting.

The history of the scalpel: From flint to zirconium-coated steel

It's reported that when performing liver or intestinal surgeries, authors such as Leong, Coffey and Hill, 12 are using methods of assisted radiofrequency to perform resections or hepatectomy, using a built prototype to carry out surgical simulations between radiofrequency ablation and liver resection. However, they reported a lack of literature studying the mechanical aspects, properties and interactions between the cutting tool, the tissue and the liver, with respect to resistance or fi rmness of the tissue considering the tool or the employed style of cut.. According to results found in the present study, it is valid to infer that scalpel blades suffer a noticeable process of deformation, which forces the operator to progressively use greater strength in every new cut to dissect the tissue, which in turn necessarily produces a decrease of the cutting speed which translates at the same time in an increase of the deformation resistance of the tissue..

From a scarring application point of view, this phenomenon is opposed to the right handling of the tissue, since to more modifications or alterations suffered by the tissue, more complex and slow will be its scarring process; as was proposed by Malik et al in You have reached the icons limit per collection icons. Save Save changes This icon replaces the current icon Save as a new icon A new icon will be created in your collection. Select a color Replace with. Move Move left. Scale down. What is this?

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